League tables – just one measure of success
– Emma McKendrick, Headmistress of Downe House School
One of the great joys and benefits of a boarding education is the fact that there is the time and the space to offer a rich array of opportunities which enable young people to grow and develop and explore the person they are. They develop passions and interests, they develop their character and they learn to play a positive part in a community – all things that will help them to lead a happy and fulfilled life. Putting a numerical value on such an education and measuring how well a school delivers its objectives can be challenging but it is not unreasonable for parents, governments and professional associations to want to see levels of accountability and to assess how a school is performing.
League tables measure examination performance and, at first sight, it might seem they would and should provide an objective, simple and straightforward measure of academic success. But the first challenge for those constructing and reading league tables is the myriad of qualifications they need to measure and compare. At 18 there are the A levels (at the moment this includes a mixture of legacy modular A levels and new linear ones), the Cambridge Pre-U qualification, the International Baccalaureate (IB), as well as a range of valuable vocational qualifications. A similar picture can be found at 16. There are vocational qualifications, GCSEs and IGCSEs.
A number of newspapers publish league tables each year. Some separate out the qualifications and have a table for schools offering the IB, for example, but for those who do not, there continues to be ongoing debate about whether the grade equivalences across the qualifications are as accurate and fair as they should be.
When interpreting the league tables it is also important to recognise that the way in which they are constructed can vary from agency to agency and newspaper to newspaper. For example, newspapers are at liberty to choose the criteria upon which they base their performance tables, and close reading of the small print is necessary to ascertain who is doing what. One newspaper may rank schools according to the percentage of pupils who gain three A levels or equivalent at AAB grade; others may use the average number of A-level points gained per candidate, or A-level points per subject. Some newspapers may attribute a financial value to each A grade using the school fees charged to cost the grade. Others will try to use some sort of value added measure, which is widely recognised as fairer.
In future, Government league tables will move towards a value-added system. There are two points for consideration when interpreting the future Government league tables – the value-added measure that is being applied and the fact that IGCSEs will no longer be included. Independent school pupils will not take the tests that enable a value-added score to be given. As IGCSEs do not qualify for inclusion in these tables, it will be perfectly possible to see very good schools, which were once at the top of a league table, at the bottom. This is a great shame as these rigorous and challenging qualifications are recognised by universities and prepare pupils well for the next stage of their studies.
Does all this mean that league tables have no value? No, but their value is limited. They must be read with caution and, to have any meaning, their omissions and variances must be well understood. It is also worth noting that a number of very well-known schools have opted out of league tables. At Downe House we took this step when we embarked on offering a mixed economy of Pre-U and A-level qualifications and found that the Pre-U was not recognised by many newspapers in their tables. When looking at examination results, you need to look at five years’ worth of data, rather than just one, and consider a school’s admissions policy and how selective it is. Highly able students should do well.
Accepting that league tables have some value, I would still argue that what is far more interesting and relevant for your daughters and sons, especially when they are away from home, is whether a school provides an exciting learning environment, has high aspirations, has high levels of university entry success and supports the development of happy, well-rounded individuals. Do look at the information provided by the school on examination results on a school’s website.
Alongside that, consider the information about where the pupils go next and what sort of courses they embark on at which universities. Consider the information on the lecture programmes, the academic enrichment available and the clubs and societies offered. These are all helpful indicators of the state of the academic health and vibrancy of a school. Inspection reports also provide useful information on the quality of teaching and learning. Above all, take into account the unquantifiable – the character and values of the school and its pupils. These will have the strongest influence on your child’s development and these have no numerical value.
Emma McKendrick studied German and Dutch at Liverpool University and obtained her PGCE at Birmingham University. She started her teaching career at the Royal School, Bath, and was Head of Careers and the Sixth Form, a Housemistress and Deputy Head, before taking on the Headship in 1994. In 1997 she became Head of Downe House School. She is a governor of King’s School Canterbury and Radley College and has experience governing a number of prep schools. She currently serves on the Boards of Lambrook and Sandroyd School and was for many years Chairman of the Languages Committee of the Independent Schools Examination Board. She is a member of the GSA, HMC and BSA and undertakes regular training as a Head and governor, including safeguarding, health and safety, curriculum training and various pastoral INSETs. She is a Fellow of the RSA.